Stephen D. Shenfield
"The Circassians: A Forgotten Genocide?", in Mark Levene and Penny Roberts (eds.), The Massacre in History, Oxford and New York: Berghahn Books, 1999, pp. 149–62.
Did the Russian conquest and deportation of the Circassians constitute the deliberate genocide of a people, or was it 'only' a case of ethnic cleansing carried out with brutal disregard to human suffering? My approach to this difficult question firstly involves examining the background of previous and concurrent Russian treatment of newly conquered peoples.
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