Sürgün - Exile
Circassian Colonization in the Danube Vilayet and Social Integration (Preliminary Notes), OTAM No. 33, Spring 2013, 1-30
The Treaty of Edirne, concluded in 1829, placed in Russia’s hand the coastal area from Anapa to Poti, and the l and between the Kuban valley and the region of Akhaltsikhе and Akhalkalaki. Expecting new military conflicts with the Sultan, Russia acted to preclude the eventual alliance between the Ottomans and the Circassians. In order to ensure the safety of the Russian trade, towns and quarantine ports, the Russian officials proposed the resettlement of the Circassians inside the Russian territory. However, the preliminary expenditure accounts prepared by a special Resettlement commission evinced as impossible the mass relocation. Conscious of the Russia’s highly contestable attempts to conquer the Northwest Caucasus, Prince Baryatinsky regarded the Circassian migration into the Ottoman Empire as an alternative less devastating for the Russian reputation and as a final solution to the year-long conflict. So, for the next 16 years, beginning in the autumn of 1858 onwards, the migration constituted the only reasonable attitude for both parties.
Kafkasya Muhacirlerinin Durumlarına Dair Eczacı Es-Seyid Hüseyin Efendi'nin Bir Mektubu, Uluslararası Sosyal Araştırmalar Dergisi, Cilt 4, Sayı 16, Kış 2011
1864 yılında Kafkasya’dan Anadolu topraklarına göç etmek zorunda kalan muhacirlerin içinde bulunduğu şartlar ve bu şartların oluşumunda bölge memurlarının sorumlulukları ve müdahaleleri hakkında, devletin bir memuru olarak Trabzon’da muhacir eczacısı olarak görev yapan bir kişi tarafından kaleme alınan bir şikâyet mektubu, muhacirlerin durumlarının vehametini gözler önüne sermesi bakımından dikkate değer bir belgedir. Es-seyyid Hüseyin Efendi 1864 yılında Trabzon’da yaşanan yolsuzlukları, usulsüzlükleri, suiistimalleri 12 madde halinde dile getirmekte ve bir an evvel durumun düzeltilmesini talep etmektedir. Muhacirin Komisyonu müfettişine iletilen bu şikâyetler derhal İstanbul’a bildirilmiş ve gerekli tedbirlerin alınması için kararları beklenmiştir. Nihayetinde devlet, öncelikle kati surette şikâyete konu olan memurların bilhassa da doktorların uyarılmasını, daha sonraki aşamada da görevlerinden alınmalarını istemiştir.
19. Yüzyılda Kafkasya'dan Anadolu'ya Yapılan Göçler, Karadeniz Araştırmaları, Güz 2011 Sayı 3117-49
19. yüzyıl, Osmanlı coğrafyasında yaşanan siyasi hareketliliğin paralelinde sosyal değişimlerin de hız kazandığı bir dönemdir. Bu asırda, çevre ülkelerin Müslüman halklarınca Osmanlı topraklarına gerçekleştirilen göçler, toplumsal değişimi tetikleyen başlıca etkenlerdendir. Osmanlı’dan cumhuriyete geçiş sürecinde bilhassa Anadolu’ya gelen göçmenlerin modern Türkiye’nin oluşumundaki katkısı yadsınamaz.
19. yüzyılın ortasından itibaren Kafkasya’dan gelen büyük kitleler de Osmanlı ülkesini yeni yurtları olarak kabul etmişlerdir. Söz konusu göçler, son yıllarda araştırmacılar tarafından çeşitli yönleriyle ele alınmaktadır.
The First Landing of the Cherkes in Turkey (Kefken-Kelken), "Reflections on the Caucasus: 1864-2010" CircassianWorld
A few years ago in 2004 the Cherkes Federation [KAFFED] in Ankara invited me to speak about the forced eviction of the Muslim peoples from their ancestral homes in the Caucasus. “Ancestral home” is a word that can cover any period of time extended from a few decades to thousands of years. In the case of the Caucasus it is impossible to quantify the length of time that its inhabitants inhabited the Caucasus Mountains. In fact, many scholars believe that the peoples of the Caucasus are the original inhabitants who lived there continuously for tens of thousands of years and even more. Strabo (b. 63BC) the Greek geographer-philosopher provides (based on older sources) a description of the Caucasian peoples which is similar with the information provided by the more recent, contemporary sources.
Thoughts on May 21st, 2010. The 146th anniversary of the expulsion of the Circassians, Abazins, and Ubykhs. "Reflections on the Caucasus: 1864-2010" CircassianWorld
The long and grievous war against the Adyghey people and their kin was waged at the height of European Imperialism. In many ways the outcome of the war was foreseeable. The bravery and sacrifices of the Adyghey peoples in the conflict were noble. These were as clear a manifestation of their culture and character as any cultural traditions could have been. A small and divided people, the various Adygheys, resisted a massive and modern European power, Russia, as she expanded across the Steppes. All the advantages lay with Russia. Defeat for the Adygheys was inevitable.
Selam Yel & Ahmet Gündüz
XIXÖ Yüzyılda Çarlık Rusyası'nın Çerkesleri Sürgün Etmesi ve Uzunyaylaya Yerleştirilmeleri (1860-1865), Turkish Studies International Periodical For the Languages, Literature and History of Turkish or Turkic Volume 3/4 Summer 2008
Bu makale iki bölümden meydana gelmektedir. Birinci bölümde XIX. Yüzyılda, Kafkaslarda meydana gelen mücadelelerden
bahsedilmektedir. Rusya’nın bu dönemde Kafkasya’yı ele geçirme politikası ve Çerkes genel adı altında yaşayan insanlara uyguladığı zorunlu sürgün hareketi işlenmektedir. İkinci bölümde ise Çerkeslerin Rus hâkimiyetinde yaşamaktansa Osmanlı Devletine göç etmeyi tercih ettiklerini, göç esnasında ve sonrasında karşılaştıkları hadiseler ve Osmanlı Devletinin bu gelenlerin bir kısmını Sivas-Uzunyayla’ya nasıl yerleştirdiği konusunda bilgiler verilmektedir.
Georgi Chochiev and Bekir Koç
Some Notes on the Settlement of Northern Caucasians in Eastern Anatolia and Their Adaptation Problems (the Second Half of the XIXth Century - the Beginning of the XXth Century), Journal of Asian History, 40/1 (2006), pp. 80-103.
Although the migration of Northern Caucasian refugees (or Circassians in their common name to Eastern Anatolia was reflective of the settlement policy of the Ottoman Empire, it also had certain particularities stemming from the demographic and socio-economic structure of the eastern provinces. Hence, one of the most significant characteristics of Eastern Anatolia was the high ethno-religious heterogeneity of the population that was around 2,5 million in the second half of the XIXth century. The population of the region in question comprised of Turks, who had significant lead in the northern and western parts of the region; Kurds, who were mostly divided into tribal and local factions; Armenians, who had no pre-eminence with a few exceptions; and Assyrians and Arabs concentrated in the south.
Çerkeslerin Türkiye'ye Sürgünü, Vatanından Uzaklara Çerkesler (Ed. Murat Papşu, Bölüm 1, Chiviyazıları Yay., İstanbul, 2004, s. 17-34)Çerkes sürgünü 19. yüzyılda gerçekleşmesine rağmen, kuşkusuz bugün için de güncel bir sorundur. Perestroyka öncesi dönemde bu konuyla ilgili makalelerin yayınlanması cesaret istiyordu. Bu makalede, bu karmaşık sorunu bütün yönleriyle aydınlatma iddiasında olmadan, merkez arşivindeki ve Kafkasya'daki arşivlerde bulunan belgelere dayanarak Çerkes sürgününün bazı özelliklerini ortaya koymaya çalışacağız.
"Kırım Savaşı’ndan Sonra Osmanlılar Tarafından Çerkeslerin Rumeli’ne İskanı", Çerkeslerin Sürgünü
Ankara, Kafdağı Yayınları, 1993.
Kırım Savaşı’nın Osmanlı Bulgaristan’ındaki bölgeler için önemi sadece Karadeniz’in batısındaki gelişmelerde değil, aynı zamanda savaşın sonunun Kafkasya’daki Rus politikasının dönüm noktasını belirlemesi gerçeğinde de yatar.
The Circassian Exodus, Morning Post, Thursday 14 July 1864
The committee have received the following letter: - "Three of four weeks ago I passed through Kustenji and Tchernavoda, where I saw some thousands of Circassians in the lowest state of destitution. Many of the children were entirely naked, seeking a scanty shelter under the ragged garments of their mothers.
Western Daily Press
The Circassian Exodus, Western Daily Press, Monday 23 May 1864
A letter, dated Constantinople, May 11, says: - The Circassians continue to pour into the country in vast numbers. Wasteed by horrible privations and disese, they flock in utter destitution in such localities as have been temporarily awarded to them.
New Zealand Spectator and Cook's Strait Guardian, Volume XIX, Issue 1987, 17 August 1864, Page 4 (From The Times, May 9, 1864, p.11.)
Constantinople, April 28.
Official intimation has been received here of the capitulation or Vardar, the last stronghold of the Circassians, and of the consequent submission of all the tribes. I had occasion in a previous letter to refer to the flood of immigration which was pouring into the Turkish dominions from the Caucasus, and to the defeats which had been experienced by these gallant mountaineers; and although there could be no doubt at that time that the cause of the Circassians was hopeless, there was not sufficient ground for anticipating the extraordinary movement which has since developed itself, and which threatens, unless immediate relief and succour be obtained, to degenerate, as regards these poor people, into an awful disaster.
The Circassian Exodus, Stirling Observer, Thursday 21 July 1864
Summary of the intelligence received at the Board of Health at Constantinople during the first week of July: - "July 1. - A Turkish cutter arrived at Constantinople from Heraklia with 80 Circassian recruits.
The Circassian Exodus, Rochdale Observer, Saturday 20 August 1864
The following letter has been received by the committee from Dr. Millingen, dated July 28th:- "My letter to Osman Pasha has had the most satisfaction with the Turkish committee have been carried on according to our former agreement as to the modeof applying the funds sent from London.
The Circassian Exodus, Newcastle Journal - Monday 06 June 1864
An address has been drawn up by the Sub-Committee, consisting of Lord Stratfor de Redcliffe (in the chair), Lord Strangford, Mr. Danby Seymour, Mr. Oliphant, and Mr. Stanley, and agreed to at a meeting of the General Committee, the names of whom have been already published in the Journal.
The Circassian Immigration, Newcastle Journal, Tuesday 17 May 1864
The Circassian refugees continue in a deplorable condition along the seaboard. There are as many as 60,000 destitute Circassians at the present moment in Trebizonde, and this mass of wretchedness is continually increasing. At Samsoun there are now about 10,000 of them, seeking shelter and food, and the town feels the burdern heavily.
The Circassians, Morpeth Herald, Saturday 06 February 1864
The Circassian immigration, says the Levant Herald of the 20th ult., continues to engage the attention of the government, and to excite the practical charity of Mussulman society in Stamboul to an extent which promises considerable alleviation of the sifferings of these unhappy strangers.
Circassian Exodus, Morning Post, Monday 11 July 1864
The committee have received the following information dated "Constantinople, June 29." "The number of immigrants amounted to 120,000. The mortality was on the decrease, being on an average of 260 to 299 daily. Nine hundred thousand piastres had arrived from Constantinople to pay old standing debts (about £7,500).
Manchester Courier and Lancashire General Advertiser
The Circassian Exodus, Manchester Courier and Lancashire General Advertiser, Tuesday 10 May 1864
The Times Constantinople correspondent, writing on the 29th April, gives painful details of the Circassian nation, who had been driven from their country by the Russians, and are taking refuge in crowded and disessed stricken multitudes on the Turkish shores of the Black Sea.
The Defeat of the Circassians, London Standard, Mon 25 Apr 1864
The following details of the great defeat of the Circassians on the 1st instant have been published here: - "The chivalrous Circassians, who have immortalised their name, and sold with the price of their blood every inch of their native soil, have succumbed at length, beneath the combined and persistent horrors of starvation, disease, and war.
London Daily News
The Circassian Exodus, London Daily News, Thursday 19 May 1864
To the editor of the Daily News. Sir, - I read with a painful interest in your columns, the piercing tale of the exodus od the brave but vannquished Circassians from their native mountains to seek an asylum and a new home in a foreign but friendly land.
Liverpool Daily Post
The Circassian Exodus, Liverpool Daily Post, Monday 09 May 1864
The Times Constantinople correspondent gives harrowinf details of the exodus of the Circassian nation, who have been driven from their country by the Rssians, and are taking refuge in crowded and disessed-stricken multitudes on the Turkish shores of the Black Sea.
The Circassian Exodus, Littell's Living Age, Volume 26, July, August, September pp. 460 - 468, 1864 Boston
A grievous calamity has befallen a brave nation little known to the British public, but invested with that romantic interest which always attaches to deeds of daring, to an unstained cause, and to an unequal struggle, maintained by a nation in defence of its liberty and independence. "It is apparent," Lord Napier writes on the 23d of Mat last "that the Russian Government have long taken an absolute resolution at any risk to remove the whole of the (Circassian) mountaineers still in arms from their native places.
Leeds Mercury Friday
The Circassian Exodus, Leeds Mercury, Friday 10 June 1864
Diplomatic correspondence relating to the emigration from the Caucasus has just been presented to Parliament by Royal command. The correspondence includes reports from our Consul in Turkey, despatches from our Ambassador at Constantinople, despatches from Lord Napier at St. Petersburg, and extracts from Russian official newspapers, all of which throw various light upon the causes, extent, and progress of the movements.
House of Commons
Papers respecting the Settlement of Circassian Emigrants in Turkey , Presented to the House of Commons by Command of Her Majesty, in pursuance of their Address dated June 6, 1864, London: Harrison & Sons.
Papers of Correspondence, or Extracts, relating to the Immigration of the Circassian Tribes into Turkey, with any account of the circumstances under which they have been driven out by the Russians, and of any preparations which have been made to receive them in Turkey.
The Suffering of the Circassian Emigrants, Herts Guardian, Agricultural Journal, and General Advertiser, Saturday 18 June 1864
The following is the main portion of the latest report received at the Turkish Board of Health from it representative, now on a mission to the Circassian exiles, It is dated Samsun, May 20th.
Hertford Mercury and Reformer
Circassian Refugees, Hertford Mercury and Reformer, Saturday 21 May 1864
The Levant Herald of the 4th, received today, says: The Circassian refugees continue in a deplorable condition along the sea-board. The number of them that have swarmed into Trebizonde had seriously augmented; and the zeal and fertility of resources of Dr. Barozzi, who has been there for some time past on behalf of the Board of Health, are taxed beyond endurance.
The Circassian Exodus - Dunfermline, Saturday 27 August 1864
Since writing my last letter I availed myself of an opportunity to take a run to Kustendje, from thence by rail to Czernawoda, and on the Danube as far as Rutschuk, on the track of the unfortunate Circassians, 40,000 of whom were sent over this line to be finally settled at Lonpalance...
Dublin Evening Mail
The Circassian Exodus, Dublin Evening Mail, Friday 13 May 1864
Mr. Maurence Oliphant writes to the Times: - "The heartrending narrative of the Circassian exodus must have appealed to the sympathies of every reader, and I had hoped that ere this an abler pen than mine would have pleased the cause in behalf of which I know venture to ask your support.
Birmingham Daily Post
The Circassian Exodus, Birmingham Daily Post, Monday 06 June 1864
Letters from Constantinople to the 11th inst., state that the Circassians continue to pour into Turkey in vast numbers. Wasted by horrible privations and disease, they flock in utter destitution to such localities as have been temporarily awarded to them.
The Circassians, Dundee Courier, Tuesday 12 July 1864
A letter, dated Ineboli, June 23, describing the condition of the Circassian immigrants, says: - "There are 5000 Circassians here just now, and every week Government steamers, sailing vessels, and market caiques add to their number.
"Immigration and Settlement of Circassians in the Ottoman Empire on British Documents, 1857-1864", Ankara Üniversitesi Osmanlı Tarihi Araştırma ve Uygulama Merkezi Dergisi, No: 9, pp. 331-366.
This paper presents and discusses British documents regarding the exile of the Circassians in the period 1857-1864.
Dr. Cahit Tutum
"1864 Göçü ile İlgili Bazı Belgeler", Çerkeslerin Sürgünü
Ankara, Kafdağı Yayınları, 1993.
Bu inceleme, 1864 Çerkes Göçünün 125. yılı nedeniyle Kuzey Kafkasya Kültür Derneği’nce Ankara’da 21-27 Ekim 1989 tarihleri arasında düzenlenen “Kültür Haftası” programı çerçevesinde tarafımdan sunulan bir tebliğin genişletilmiş ve gözden geçirilmiş biçimidir. Söz konusu tebliğ 1864 yılında Çerkezistan’ın düşüşü üzerine Osmanlı ülkesine yönlendirilen ve izleri günümüze kadar uzanan bir büyük göç olayının çok küçük bir kesitinin görüntülenmesi ile ilgilidir.